In the modern world, almost all interaction takes place through the Internet. Many people use web resources every day for information, business operations, communication, and entertainment. However, there are user categories that face difficulties in using websites due to limited abilities or disabilities. Therefore, in order for a site to be accessible to the maximum number of users, it is important to create web resources that take into account the needs of people with disabilities.
One of the most common groups of users with limited abilities is people with visual impairments. They may have different types of limitations, from partial blindness to color blindness. To make a website accessible to this user category, there are a number of recommendations. Firstly, it is necessary to use a clear and legible font with sufficient size and contrast. Sans-serif fonts, such as Arial or Verdana, are the most readable for most people with visual impairments. Using a font size large enough (at least 16 pixels) improves legibility for people with poor vision. It is also important to provide the user with the ability to independently change the font size using CSS styles or special tools on the website.
Another important user group is people with hearing impairments. Accessibility for them can be provided by the ability to enable subtitles or text descriptions in videos. It is also possible to provide the ability to listen to text content using text-to-speech synthesizers. It is important not to use only sound signals or audio notifications, as users with hearing impairments will not be able to hear them.
The third group of users who need their needs to be considered when visiting a website is people with physical limitations or disabilities. For them, it is important to provide the ability to navigate the site using the keyboard, as some users cannot use a mouse or touch screen. It is also important to provide sufficient spacing between elements so that users with limited motor skills can easily select the desired element using the keyboard. It is also necessary to use active controls (links, buttons) with a sufficiently large click area so that users can easily click on them.
In addition, using alternative text for images and links allows people with disabilities to use the site more comfortably. Alternative text is displayed instead of an image if it fails to load or the user is using a screen reading program. Correct use of the page description meta tag and proper markup using HTML characteristics (semantics) are also necessary to improve website accessibility.
An important aspect in creating a website that takes into account the needs of people with disabilities is testing it. Checking the accessibility of a site for different user categories, including people with disabilities, helps to identify and correct errors and issues. It is also recommended to use website accessibility checking tools for automatic analysis and identification of possible problems.
Creating a website that takes into account the needs of people with disabilities is not only an act of social responsibility, but also a business advantage. Firstly, it ensures accessibility and ease of use of the site for a larger number of users. Secondly, such a site complies with international accessibility standards, which can be important when applying for government or international projects. And finally, creating an accessible website can help develop and improve products and services, taking into account the needs of all users.
It is important to remember that website accessibility is an ongoing process. The requirements of users with disabilities may change, and new technologies and tools may provide new opportunities for improving accessibility. Therefore, it is recommended to regularly check and update your website to ensure its accessibility for all users.